University of California, Santa Cruz - ECON 100B
CHAPTER 5: The Solow Growth Model
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1)In 1960, the Philippines had a per capita income South Korea’s
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University of California, Santa Cruz - ECON 100B
CHAPTER 5: The Solow Growth Model
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1)In 1960, the Philippines had a per capita incomeSouth Korea’s. In 2014,.
lower than; this situation had reversed
lower than; per capita income was equal in both countries
equal to; South Korea had higher per capita income
higher than; this situation had reversed
higher than; this difference was even more pronounced
In 2014, the Philippines per capita GDP was about, while in South Korea it was. a. $6,600; over $35,000
b. $10,000; $15,000
c. half that of the United States; twice that of the United States
d. $1,000; $2,000
e. $35,000; the same
The Solow model of economic growth:
endogenizes labor. d. exogenizes investment.
endogenizes physical capital. e. endogenizes investment.
exogenizes physical capital.
The key insight in the Solow model is that:
saving rates are determined in a particular manner.
savings have no impact on economic growth.
capital depreciation enhances economic growth.
the relationship between capital and output is static.
capital accumulation contributes to economic growth.
The Solow model describes:
how saving rates are determined.
the static relationship between capital and output.
how savings, population growth, and technological change affect output over time.
how savings, population growth, and technological change affect output in a single period.
what constitutes technological change.
In the corn farm example, corn can be used as:
only investment. d. either consumption or investment.
either saving or depreciation. e. tax revenue.
only consumption.
In the corn farm example, saving some of the corn produced:
future output, which grows over time.
lower consumption in the future.
future output, which declines over time.
higher consumption today.
technological change.
The production function used in the Solow model is:
. d. .
. e. .
c.
.
If C_{t} denotes consumption, I_{t} denotes investment, and Y_{t} is output, the resource constraint in the Solow model is:
Y_{t} = C_{t} ? I_{t}. d. .
. e. None of these answers is correct. c.
.
In the Solow model, in every period, a fraction of total output, whichnext period’s capital stock.
is saved; reduces d. is consumed; adds to
depreciates; adds to e. is consumed; reduces
is saved; adds to
In the Solow model, the equation of capital accumulation is:
a. . d. .
b.. e. .
c.
.
In the Solow model, if , the capital stock:
declines. d. Not enough information is given.
stays the same. e. None of these answers is correct.
grows.
In the Solow model, if investment isdepreciation, the capital stock.
less than; grows d. equal to; declines
greater than; grows e. equal to; grows
greater than; declines
In the Solow model, the parameter denotesand is.
investment; less than one d. the depreciation rate; less than one
the depreciation rate; equal to zero e. investment; greater than one
consumption; greater than one
In the Solow model, it is assumed that a(n)fraction of capital depreciates regardless of the capital stock.
increasing d. undetermined
constant e. None of these answers is correct.
decreasing
Using the Solow model, if, in time t = 0, the initial capital stock is K_{0} = 100, investment is I_{0} = 25, and
.1 is the depreciation rate, capital accumulation from period 0 to period 1 is: a. ?K_{1} = 35. d. ?K_{1} = 0.
b. ?K_{1} = ?15. e. ?K_{1} = 115.
c. ?K_{1} = 15.
Using the Solow model, if, in time t = 50, the capital stock is K_{50} = 150, investment is I_{50} = 15, and is the depreciation rate, capital accumulation from period 50 to 51 is:
a. ?K_{51}= 5. d. ?K_{51}=120.
b. ?K_{51}= ?15. e. ?K_{51}= 0.
c. ?K_{51}=15.
In the simple Solow model, we assume:
the depreciation rate is negative. d. labor is exogenous.
net investment is always positive. e. the saving rate changes frequently.
TFP equals one.
In the Solow model, defining as the saving rate, Y_{t} as output, and I_{t} as investment, consumption is given by:
. d. .
. e. .
.
In the Solow model, defining as the saving rate, Y_{t} as output, and C_{t} as consumption, investment I_{t} is given by:
. d. .
. e. .
.
The amount of capital in an economy is a(n), while the amount of investment is a(n)
.
flow; stock d. intermediate good; final good
stock; flow e. None of these answers is correct.
final good; intermediate good
Capital accumulation is a(n):
stock. d. intermediate good.
flow. e. None of these answers is correct.
final good.
Which of the following is/are left out of the Solow model?
productivity d. the saving rate
consumption e. depreciation
real interest rates
The endogenous variables in the Solow model are:
the capital stock, labor, and output.
consumption, investment, the capital stock, labor, and the saving rate.
consumption, investment, the capital stock, labor, and output.
productivity and the depreciation and saving rates.
the capital stock, labor, output, and the saving rate.
Which of the following is an exogenous variable in the Solow model?
productivity d. the initial capital stock
the depreciation rate e. All of these answers are correct.
the saving rate
The Solow model assumes the saving rate is:
zero. d. increasing as income increases.
constant. e. larger as the interest rate rises.
decreasing as income increases.
In the Solow model, investment, I_{t}, as a function of saving, , and output, , is written as:
. d. .
. e. .
.
A change in the capital stock, ?K_{t}, can be expressed as a function of the saving rate, ; output,
; the capital stock,K_{t}; and the depreciation rate, , by:
a.
d.
b. . e. c.
The equation is called:
saving. d. the capital stock.
investment. e. depreciation.
net investment.
In the Solow model, net investment is defined as:
investment plus capital depreciation.
investment minus capital depreciation.
the saving rate minus the depreciation rate.
the saving rate plus the depreciation rate.
None of these answers is correct.
In the Solow model, if net investment is positive:
capital accumulation is zero. d. savings are negative.
capital accumulation is negative. e. Not enough information is given.
capital accumulation is positive.
Refer to the following figure when answering the following questions.
Figure 5.1: Solow Diagram
In Figure 5.1, if the economy begins with the initial capital stock at K_{1}, the capital stock will
and the economy will.
decrease; grow d. decrease; shrink
increase; grow e. stay constant; grow
stay constant; shrink
In Figure 5.1, if the economy begins with the initial capital stock at K_{2}, the capital stock will
and the economy will.
decrease; grow d. stay constant; shrink
increase; grow e. stay constant; grow
stay constant; be in its steady state
In Figure 5.1, if the economy begins with the initial capital stock at K_{3}, the capital stock will
and the economy will.
increase; grow d. decrease; be in its steady state
decrease; shrink e. stay constant; shrink
stay constant; be in its steady state
In Figure 5.1, the capital stock at K_{1} is not the steady state because:
the saving rate is too low.
the saving rate is too high.
the depreciation rate is too low.
gross investment is higher than capital depreciation.
gross investment is lower than capital depreciation.
In Figure 5.1, at K_{1}, net investment isand the economy.
negative; will grow d. positive; will grow
positive; is in its steady state e. negative; will contract
zero; is in its steady state
The steady state is defined as the point where capital accumulation, ?K_{t}, is equal to:
the saving rate. d. the productivity growth rate.
zero. e. the population growth rate.
the depreciation rate.
If we define the saving rate as , output as , and the depreciation rate as and if
, the economy is:
contracting. d. in its short-run equilibrium.
growing. e. None of these answers is correct.
at the steady state.
If we define the saving rate as , output as , and the depreciation rate as and if
, the economy is:
contracting. d. in its short-run equilibrium.
at the steady state. e. None of these answers is correct.
growing.
The Solow model assumes the:
capital stock is constant. d. saving rate changes each period.
number of workers is growing. e. depreciation rate changes each period.
number of workers is constant.
In the Solow model, if, in the absence of any shocks, the capital stock remains at K* forever, this rest point is called the:
saving rate. d. rate of capital accumulation.
short-run equilibrium. e. dynamic system.
steady state.
In the Solow model, if capital is in the steady state, output:
will continue to grow.
is also in the steady state.
will continue to grow, but its rate of growth will slow down.
will decline, but its rate of growth will be positive.
will begin to contract.
Refer to the following figure when answering the following questions.
Figure 5.2
In Figure 5.2, steady-state consumption is represented by:
a b. d. b.
c a. e. a d.
Consumption is not represented.
In Figure 5.2, steady-state investment is represented by:
Investment is not represented.
a.
c d.
a
b.
b.
In the Solow model, the steady-state level of output per worker is a function of:
productivity and the initial capital stock.
the initial capital stock, productivity, and the saving rate.
the initial capital stock, productivity, and the depreciation rate.
the initial capital stock and the steady-state level of capital stock.
productivity, the depreciation rate, and the saving rate.
In the Solow model, the steady-state capital stock is a function of:
productivity and the initial capital stock.
the initial capital stock, productivity, and the saving rate.
the initial capital stock, productivity, and the depreciation rate.
the labor stock and the steady-state level of capital stock.
productivity, the depreciation rate, the labor stock, and the saving rate.
Assume a production function is given by . If , the depreciation rate is , and the saving rate is the steady-state level of capital is about:
a. 0.3. d. 0.8.
b. 1.3. e. 1.6.
c. 2.8.
Assume a production function is given by . If and , the depreciation rate is
, and the saving rate is , the steady-state level of capital is about: a. 0.1. d. 8.0.
b. 2.5. e. 0.6.
c. 1.6.
Assume a production function is given by . If and , and the steady-state capital stock is 8.0, the steady-state level of output is about:
a. 8.0. d. 2.0.
b. 4.0. e. 22.6.
c. 45.4.
If the production function is given by , the saving rate, s, is 20 percent; the depreciation rate, , is 10 percent; and , the steady-state level of output is:
a. 1.4. d. 8.0.
b. 4.0. e. 3.5.
c. 2.0.
The steady-state level of output per worker in the Solow model, with the production function
, is given by:
d.
. .
e.
. .
c.
.
Refer to the following figure when answering the following questions.
Figure 5.3: Solow Diagram
In Figure 5.3, at K_{1}, the difference between and is, and the difference between Y and is.
output; investment d. output; consumption
net investment; consumption e. depreciation; gross investment
gross investment; consumption
In Figure 5.3, at K_{2}, capital accumulation is, the economy is, and consumption is
.
positive; growing; positive d. zero; in the steady state; positive
zero; in the steady state; zero e. zero; contracting; negative
negative; growing; positive
In the Solow model, it is assumed a(n)fraction of capital depreciates each period.
zero d. constant
increasing e. None of these answers is correct.
decreasing
An increase inleads to a higher steady-state capital stock, and a decline inleads to a lower steady-state capital stock.
the saving rate; the depreciation rate d. the depreciation rate; the labor stock
the saving rate; productivity e. None of these answers is correct.
productivity; the initial capital stock
An increase inleads to a higher steady-state level of output, and an increase in
leads to a lower steady-state level of output.
the saving rate; the depreciation rate d. the depreciation rate; the labor stock
the saving rate; productivity e. None of these answers is correct.
productivity; the initial capital stock
An increase inleads to a higher steady-state level of output per worker, and a decline in the
leads to a lower steady-state level of output per worker.
productivity; saving rate d. the initial capital stock; saving rate
the saving rate; initial capital stock e. None of these answers is correct.
the saving rate; depreciation rate
In the standard production model’s production function, the productivity parameter enters the equation with an exponent of one, while in the Solow model’s equation for the steady-state stock of capital it is greater than one because:
the endogenous level of the capital stock itself depends on productivity.
there is no productivity parameter in the production function model.
the productivity measure is zero in the production function model.
the productivity measure is negative in the Solow model.
the exogenous level of the capital stock itself depends on productivity.
In the Solow model, theplays arole than it does in the standard production function model.
labor supply; larger d. capital stock; smaller
productivity parameter; larger e. productivity parameter; smaller
capital stock; larger
If a natural disaster destroys a large portion of a country’s capital stock but the saving and depreciation rates are unchanged, the Solow model predicts that the economy will grow and eventually reach:
the same steady-state level of output as it would have before the disaster.
a higher steady-state level of output than it would have before the disaster.
a lower steady-state level of output than it would have before the disaster.
Not enough information is given.
None of these answers is correct.
The key difference between the Solow model and the production model is that the:
Solow model endogenizes the process of capital accumulation.
production function model endogenizes the process of capital accumulation.
Solow model uses different values for the capital share.
Solow model does not contain a productivity measure.
Solow model exogenizes the process of capital accumulation.
Over the past 30 years,has averaged a saving rate ofpercent.
Japan; 15 d. South Korea; 35
Russia; 5 e. China; 12.5
the United States; 15
Over the past 30 years,has averaged a saving rate ofpercent.
Japan; 15 d. South Korea; 45
Russia; 5 e. China; 12.5
the United States; 25
According to the Solow model, in the steady state, countries with high saving rates should have a:
low labor-output ratio. d. high depreciation rate.
low capital-output ratio. e. high A.
high capital-output ratio.
Suppose you are given the data for Brazil and Portugal. In Brazil, the saving rate is 0.1 and the depreciation rate is 0.1, while in Portugal the saving rate is 0.2 and the depreciation rate is 0.1. Using the Solow model, you conclude that in the steady state:
Brazil has a higher level of output than Portugal.
Brazil has a higher capital-output ratio than Portugal.
Portugal has a higher level of output than Brazil.
Portugal has a higher capital-output ratio than Brazil.
Portugal and Brazil have the same capital-output ratio.
In the Solow model, if we assume that capital depreciation rates are the same across all countries, differences in per capita output can be explained by:
the steady-state capital stock.
the initial capital stock and saving rates.
differences in productivity and saving rates.
the labor stock and saving rates.
None of these answers is correct.
If we define and as the saving rates, as the depreciation rates, and and as productivity in Countries 1 and 2, respectively, and the production function per capita is given by
in both countries, the Solow model predicts that the ratio of GDP per worker in Country 1 relative to Country 2 is:
d.
. .
e.
. .
c.
.
If we define and as the saving rates in Countries 1 and 2, respectively, as the
depreciation rates in Countries 1 and 2, respectively, and and as productivity in Countries 1 and 2, respectively, in the Solow model, the equationpredicts thatdifferences contribute the most to differences in steady-state output per worker.
a.
; productivity
b.
; saving rate
c.
; productivity
d.
; productivity
e.
; saving rate
If the depreciation and saving rates are constant, the economy eventually will reach the steady state in the Solow model because of:
the lack of productivity.
increasing returns to capital in production.
constant returns to capital in production.
diminishing returns to capital in production.
increasing returns to labor in production.
An implication of the Solow model is that once an economy reaches the steady state:
long-term growth continues indefinitely.
long-term growth does not continue.
long-term growth accelerates.
long-term growth decelerates.
None of these answers is correct.
An implication of the Solow model is that once an economy reaches the steady state, per capita:
consumption is constant.
output is constant, but per capita capital is not.
capital is variable.
consumption continues to grow.
consumption is growing.
Acentral lesson of the Solow model is that:
capital accumulation cannot serve as the engine of long-run per capita economic growth.
capital accumulation is the only engine of long-run per capita economic growth.
consumption is the only engine of short-run per capita economic growth.
saving rates serve as the engine of long-run per capita economic growth.
the initial capital stock plays a large part in long-run economic growth.
In the Solow model, saving and investing in additional factories and computers doesoutput to grow in therun if the economy is below Y*. But, in the long run, thereturns to capital accumulation lead the return to these investments to fall.
lead; medium; diminishing d. not lead; medium; diminishing
lead; long; increasing e. not lead; long; increasing
lead; medium; increasing
Which of the following best answers whether growth in the labor force leads to overall economic growth?
Population growth can produce growth in the Solow model in the aggregate but not in output per person.
Total capital and production per worker can grow as the population of the economy grows.
It never does—only capital contributes to aggregate economic growth.
Population growth can produce growth in the Solow model in the aggregate and in output per person.
Population growth increases output per person but not aggregate output.
In the Solow model, with population growth:
there is no steady state in output per person.
the economy never settles down to a steady state and exhibits growth in output per person.
the economy eventually settles down to a steady state in output per person.
the economy eventually settles down to a steady state with no growth in aggregate output.
None of these answers is correct.
Refer to the following figure when answering the following questions.
Figure 5.4: Solow Diagram
Figure 5.4 represents two countries, 1 and 2. Countryhas a higher saving rate and will have asteady state than the other country.
2; lower d. 1; lower
1; higher e. Not enough information is given.
2; higher
Consider the Solow model exhibited in Figure 5.4. Which of the following is/are true?
For any single country, the movement from point a to b is due to an increase in the saving rate, s_{1} > s_{2}.
For any single country, the movement from point c to b is due to an increase in capital stock for the saving rate, s_{2}.
If s_{1} and s_{2} stand for the saving rates in Countries 1 and 2, respectively, Country 2 has a lower saving rate.
i d. i and ii
ii e. i, ii, and iii
iii
Consider the Solow model exhibited in Figure 5.4. If a country’s saving rate increases from s_{1} to s_{2}, the economy would:
move from point a to point b. d. move from point a to point c.
move from point c to point a. e. stay at point b.
move from point c to point b.
Assume two economies are identical in every way except that one has a higher saving rate. According to the Solow growth model, in the steady state, the country with the higher saving rate will have
level of total output andrate of growth of output than/as the country with the lower saving rate.
a higher; a higher d. a higher; a lower
a higher; the same e. the same; the same
a lower; a higher
In the Solow model, if a country’s saving rate increases, the country:
moves from a relatively low steady state to one that is lower.
moves from a relatively low steady state to one that is higher.
moves from a relatively high steady state to one that is lower.
stays at a constant high steady state.
stays at a constant low steady state.
A decline in the saving rate causes the steady-state level of output:
and capital to rise. d. and capital to remain constant.
to rise and capital to fall. e. to rise and capital to remain constant.
and capital to fall.
Immediately following the increase in the saving rate, output grows rapidly. As the economy approaches its new steady state, the growth rate:
gradually increases. d. is negative.
gradually declines. e. None of these answers is correct.
is constant.
Refer to the following figure when answering the following questions.
Figure 5.5: Solow Diagram
Consider the Solow model exhibited in Figure 5.5. Which of the following is/are true?
If 1 denotes Country 1 and 2 denotes Country 2, Country 1 has a higher saving rate.
If 1 denotes Country 1 and 2 denotes Country 2, Country 1 has a lower depreciation rate.
If 1 denotes Country 1 and 2 denotes Country 2, Country 2 has a lower steady state.
i d. ii and iii
ii e. i, ii, and iii
iii
Figure 5.5 represents two countries, 1 and 2. Countryhas a higher depreciation rate and, therefore, has asteady state than the other country.
1; higher d. 2; lower
1; lower e. Not enough information is given.
2; higher
Considering the figure below, the transitional dynamics best describe:
Figure 5.6
an increase in the depreciation rate. d. a decrease in the capital stock.
a positive TFP shock. e. both a and c.
a decline in the saving rate.
Research on the effects of war on economic growth demonstrates that following a war an economy recovers:
recovers within one or two generations.
recovers in less than 10 years.
recovers slowly over the course of 50 years.
never fully recovers.
recovers in more than 50 years.
The analysis of how an economy approaches the steady state is called: